Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Economic Theory of Regulation - Essay Example The most known work of Stigler that affects many individuals and groups at present is that of the economic theory of regulation. This theoretical understanding of the major thoughts that has been created to help the society see through the situations mandated as part of the development of the human community creates a knowledgeable knowing on the part of the people's realization as to how they are playing an important role in the society. The economic theory of regulation basically shows how much people are affected by economy. The systems of the society and the rules that are established around the people living in it has long been derived from the many considerable thoughts of the ongoing relationship between social elements as per established through economic connections and demands. The relationship between every person and the groups that creates the entire society is shaped by needs and demands that each needs from the other. Through these demands, the creation of products and services are given way as per mandated through the different provisions allowed by the established legal regulations to exist. The theory of Stiglist suggests the strong implication as to how rules and regulations shape the society's capability of existing in the cause of creating balance among people and groups as established by each one's economic pursuits. In the discussion that follows, a careful understanding of the major issues concerned in understanding Stiglist's implicative theory on microeconomics naturally affect the author of this paper and how the entire idea affects the whole world basically shall be presented to the respective readers of this piece. Through this, the author aims to outline how much regulations of economy have naturally created rules and basic understanding on the roles of existence that each plays to benefit the others. ON Personal Views of the Economy As a regular individual, the author of this paper recognizes the real need to purchase things and get services that are necessary for life. Apparently, there are rules established for such needs and these rules are the ones greatly outlining the values that exist in the human society today. It is through these regulations that the birth of the many systems of economic operations are given way to control the ways by which consumers prefer to have the products that they ought to consume. It is through this that the regulations on how and when people buy what they need is established, and it is through this process that the monetary value of each service and product is identified as part of the demands of the human individuals given way as part of the fact that people and social groups exist for the survival of the other and vice versa. How does this idea affects the author personally Being an ordinary member of the society, the author is basically affected by the theory through becoming highly involved in the process of buying and appreciating products and services offered in the market through the scale of his monetary capability; a regulatory matter that is rather considered as
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Business-Level and Corporate-Level Strategies - Assignment Example According to the research findings there are a number of marketing and branding strategies followed by Tesco. The retail giant provides various schemes to customers with the motive of improving the quality of customer service. The schemes such as, First Class Service Initiative and Loyalty Card, place greater emphasis on the customer delight compared to customer services. These are the finest customer retention strategies utilized by the company. Giving personalized services in a cost effective manner is the key motive of Tesco in order to attract more consumers. Besides that, Tesco has launched a number of magazines to draw the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ attention towards the products offered. The magazines published had a unique combination of advertisements and articles related to the offerings. These also served as a means of distributing the promotional coupons.As the paper discussesÃ the corporate level strategy that is implemented by the Tesco management involves diversification, exp ansion, own brand food promotion, regular technological up-gradation, healthy supplier relation and stakeholder satisfaction.Ã Tesco has invested in a number of existing stores so as to render those more competitive and modify them as per the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ changing expectations. The United Kingdom (UK) based company wants to further expand the business and product lines so as to retain the competitive edge.Ã Tesco boasts of the guaranteed low prices for quality offerings made to all consumers.
Monday, January 27, 2020
A Report on the Balanced Scorecard for Yunnan Lucky Air The Chinese airline industry is a heavily regulated industry which provides limiting flexibility to both new as well as growing airlines. In the recent years many low-cost airlines have mushroomed, Lucky Air being one of them. Lucky Air was founded in July 2004 with an initial capitalisation of US$2.2 million. The ownership of the airline is with Hainan Airlines, Shanxi Airlines and Yunnan Shilin Tourism Aviation.The airline exists in a crowded field of around 15 low-cost Chinese airlines. The airline, though growing, anticipates a potential squeeze in its business. The management of Yunnan Lucky Air, hereinafter referred to as Lucky Air, approached us to advice them on monitoring their performance closely so as to achieve their organisational mission and objectives. After initial discussions with the management of the airlines, my team has recommended the use of a Balanced Scorecard to monitor its performance. I present in this report a Balanced Scorecard for Lucky Air that translat es the airlines mission and strategy into a comprehensive set of performance measures. Recent Trends in Lucky Air Lucky Air is currently based in Kunming in Peoples Republic of China. The airline has its main base in Dali airport and runs its flights between Dali to Kunming and Xishuangbanna. The routes in this region have greatly contributed to most of its profits. It is slowly reaching out to other regions in China. The overall growth of the airline has been facilitated by the limited route licensing policy of the Chinese government that has given Lucky Air a near monopoly status within Yunnan. The number of passengers carried by the airline has grown from 500,000 passengers over 5,746 flight hours in 2006 to 1.2 million over 17,875 total flight hours. During the same period, its operating revenue tripled from US$31.2 million to US$104.3 million. Over the recent years, Lucky Air has also grown in terms of flights to and from destinations outside the Yunnan province. As in early 2008, the additional routes represented almost 87 of its 150 weekly flights by the airline. Lucky Air Strategy Lucky Air operates as a low-cost, high-efficiency airline. This is the basis of its key strategy. The low-cost and high efficiency is maintained through: Using single type of aircraft leading to reduced maintenance and operational costs. Having only one category of seat class, thereby simplifying pricing. Having no seat assignments or in-flight entertainment. Increasing on-time departure and arrival by having short haul point-to-point routes. Operating mostly in secondary cities to avoid congestion and reduce landing costs. As a part of its expansion strategy, in recent times Lucky Air has tried to build its competitive advantage by focusing on e-commerce. Customers can buy and refund tickets online by paying 5% to 20% less than anywhere else. The airline has created an online community for its passengers and hopes to reach more customers directly via its website and build more brand recognition and a loyal customer base. In addition, Lucky Air has invested in own call centres to facilitate ticket booking. Balance Scorecard for Lucky Air Lucky Airs strategy rests around it being a low-cost, high-efficiency airline. A scorecard can measure the airlines performance across four different but linked perspectives that are derived from its vision, strategy and objectives. These perspectives include: Financial, Customer, Internal and Learning Growth. The left-hand side of the diagram represents the cause-and-effect relationships across the four perspectives that describe low cost and high-efficiency strategy. (Refer Appendix A for an explanation of the Lucky Air Scorecard and Appendix B for Cause and Relationship between perspectives) Benefits and Limitations of the Scorecard Like any other performance measurement tool, a Balanced Scorecard is not foolproof. Before the scorecard that has been designed for Lucky Air is implemented, the benefits and limitations of the scorecard need to be examined and understood. Benefits of Lucky Air Scorecard Balance Scorecard has led companies to develop a variety of corporate scorecards suggesting a process approach to innovations in performance measurements. (Source: Epstein and Birchard, 2000 and Hoque and James 1997). The benefits that can be obtained from a Balanced Scorecard depend on not just its design but also what it is used for and how it is applied. In general, a Balanced Scorecard will help Lucky Air: Enhance traditional financial accounting measures of Lucky Air by including certain non-financial measures. Thus, Lucky Air, through a Balanced Scorecard, can examine the drivers of financial performance by focusing at least three other perspectives: customers, internal business processes, and learning and growth. (Source: Kaplan and Norton, 1992, 1996). Acquire an effective means for clearly translating a firms vision and strategy into tool for communicating the firms strategy to the various sections of the organisation. In the case of Lucky Air, the Balanced Scorecard can show how focusing on the customer and the services can lead to increased profits. (Source: Chow, 1997; Source: Kaplan, 1992) Motivate performance against established strategic goals. A handful of critical measures have been identified for each perspective and the corresponding targets have been defined. The performance measures force managers to focus on the measures that are most critical. The targets provide managers with a framework to manage the various activities in line with the corporate objectives. For example, a manager can clearly see that managing on ground time is critical and it needs to be kept below 20 minutes. Ensure that its employees understand the long-term strategy of the organisation and also the association between the employees actions and the chosen strategic goals. It can provide strategic feedback and promote learning within the airline through the monitoring of short-term strategic results. Allocate resources and set priorities based on the initiatives contribution to long-term strategic objectives. (Source: Kaplan and Norton, 1996). Evaluate and judge the decisions, policies, plans of the airline. For example, the success or otherwise of the decision of adopting e-commerce as an expansion strategy by Lucky Air can be examined in terms of the four perspectives and its impact on the profitability of the airline. Fosters organisational learning and continual improvement when it is used as a strategic management tool. Limitations of Lucky Air Scorecard Though Balanced Scorecard may be an effective tool for many organisations, it may not help in improvement of performance of all organisations. A Balanced Scorecard is only a tool and the deployment of the tool rests with the airline itself. It is not easy to provide practical guidance for deployment of the scorecard. Some of the key limitations that can cause a Balanced Scorecard initiative at Lucky Air to fail are as follows: Effectiveness of a balanced scorecard depends on a well defined strategy and an understanding of the linkages between strategic objectives and metrics. (Source: Howard Rohm pp.4). If this is lacking its deployment will be unsuccessful. The biggest limitation of the Lucky Air scorecard is that it has been designed by an external team of consultants who have been in discussion with some key players in the airline. It did not involve a cross-section of the airline in developing the system. Thus if the scorecard of Lucky Air fails to link the correct drivers in the internal and learning and growth perspective to the desired outcomes in the financial and customer perspectives, it will not be effective. A scorecard may not be effective if it includes a few measures for each perspective. For example, success of Lucky Air is not only a result of the training and motivation of the ground crew but the entire staff. Thus a scorecard with too few measures may not depict enough of Lucky Airs strategy and does not represent a balance between desired outcomes and performance drivers of the outcomes. Likewise if too many measures are included, the managers attention may get so diffused that he may pay insufficient attention to those measures that can make the maximum impact. No balanced scorecard can be flawless with respect to its design. The Lucky Air scorecard too may have certain design flaws which may not be visible now. These will only be detected when the scorecard is implemented. It is only over a period of time that a company will learn about the effective drivers of performance. (Source: Norreklit, 2000) The scorecard on its own will not be effective if Lucky Airs top management is not committed to it. The top executives may end up looking at Balanced scorecard as a quick fix that can easily be installed in the airline. The scorecard may have its limitations if the top management simply uses it as a checklist for operational improvements or to expand the compensation system to include non-financial measures. (Source: Atkinson, A. et al, 2004) The scorecard seems to have too much internal focus. The scorecard is only depicting incentives for desired behaviour changes in the ground crew and not focusing on other employees. Conclusion and Recommendation A scorecard balances traditional financial measures of success such as profits and return on capital with non-financial measures of the drivers of future financial performance. It can prove to be an effective tool for Lucky Air if it is appropriately deployed by the airline. Appropriate deployment will require complete commitment from all levels in the organisation by making its implementation everyones job. Moreover, the initial Balanced Scorecard should only be taken as a starting point and needs to be looked upon on an ongoing basis. Frequent reviews of the scorecard are required and new performance measures identified as a Balanced Scorecard evolves over a period of time. Data on various measures or metrics needs to be collected on a regular basis and the targets of the metrics should be sufficiently linked to rewards and incentives to motivate their accomplishment. APPENDIX Appendix A: Explanation of the Lucky Air Scorecard The classes which can be formed and the parameters which may be put in the balance scorecard are: Financial: How is success measured by Lucky Airs owners, namely, Hainan Airlines, Shanxi Airlines and Yunnan Shilin Tourism Aviation? The financial parameter can be evaluated by assigning values to parameters like total revenue or increase in revenue from tickets, total amount refunded due to cancelled tickets etc. It is also measured in changes in the plane leasing costs, maintaining and operating costs etc. Customers: This is the customer perspective. It focuses on how the airline creates value for the customers. Customer perspective provides an insight into the perceptions customers hold for Lucky Air. Internal: What internal processes should Lucky Air excel in to satisfy customers and shareholders? Internal Processes can be known from turnaround time, on-ground time, arrival and departure delays, number of ticketing errors, customer care services etc. This would help in attaining an idea of the operations of the organization in question. Learning and growth: What employee capabilities, information systems and Lucky Airs climate does the airline need to continually improve its internal processes and customer relationships? It focuses on the motivation and training of the crew members. Starting at the bottom of the diagram, the strategy has a learning and growth objective to train and motivate ground crew with the expectation that this will lead to better improved ground turnarounds, from arrivals to subsequent departures, for its planes. This internal objective enables Lucky Air to have its planes depart on time and to get better utilisation of its airplanes and flight crews, further enabling it to earn profits even at prices that are lowest in the industry. It also focuses on improvement of internal processes to realise bigger revenue opportunities. The low prices and on-time departures attract more customers, improve customer loyalty and lead to a growth in revenues. The combination of revenue growth and low costs finally results in high profits and high return on assets. The strategy is clearer through the cause and effect relationships among objectives in each of the four balanced scorecard perspectives. These can be stated as follows: Increase revenues through increased sales to existing and new customers (financial) Grow to be service oriented ( customer perspective) Excel in providing services through continuous process improvements ( internal) Bring into line employee incentives and rewards with the strategy (learning and growth)
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Explain child protection in the wider concept of safeguarding children and young people. Safeguarding of children is known as an umbrella term which means it involves everything to ensure the health and safety of the children. Safeguarding of a child is priority, whether it to be at home, nursery, youth clubs, in a social setting or in someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s care. Also whether it is an adult they know or donÃ¢â¬â¢t know or even another child, knowing the welfare of each individual child is paramount.In doing this there are many policies and procedures to follow regarding a childÃ¢â¬â¢s health and safety, in which companies have to enforce these policies and procedures in a child based setting. When a child based setting is recruiting new members of staff there are many checks that they need to do, the main check is their DBS checks commonly known as their CRB to ensure they have no criminal convictions, ever been on a sex offenders list or are a general risk to children.Communicat ion with a childÃ¢â¬â¢s parent is so important when it comes to a childÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare knowing how the childÃ¢â¬â¢s home life is and any concerns the parents may have about their child. Having a good working relationship with the parents and getting to know them is key, they are entrusting us with the welfare of their children. It is a difficult transition for parent sending their children to nursery for the first time knowing that their child is going to be safe and their well-being is going to be well cared for is reassuring to them.Making sure a childÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare is safe in all aspects of life is a vital part of their development in their learning capability, in their confidence and in the long term impact into adult hood. It is important that all staff know the correct policies and procedures if they have cause for concern, finding ways to do this is updating safeguarding polices regularly and retraining staff often to ensure this.Also setting up a CAF (common assessm ent framework) and making contact with multi agencies for a child who they have cause for concern for and puttingÃ support in place for them is a good way to ensure a child in need is getting the best possible support, and them knowing that someone is there to listen and support them is reassuring to the child. Making staff stand out as staff with the correct uniform and ensuring ID is in full view for the parents and other staff to see clearly for identification.Making sure that the staffs donÃ¢â¬â¢t put themselves in any sort of situation to possible complains that can arise i. e.Ã no mobile phones or if any conflict with a child make sure it is handled correctly following the correct policies and procedure guidelines of your work setting. Also making sure schools and nurseries know who exactly are coming in and out of the building with a signing in book. There are all types of abuse, physical abuse, mental abuse, sexual abuse, neglect and verbal abuse, following the safegua rding policies and procedures will help ensure a childÃ¢â¬â¢s health and safety.Making sure these policies and procedures are followed correctly will give the child the best outcome in life. There are many ways to protect a child, at home, in a school or social setting. Unfortunately in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society there is a dip in the system when it comes to the protection of children, so many children are being put a risk. People need to be more vigilant to stop children getting abused in any sort of way. Every child matters they are our future abuse needs to stop, people need to become more aware to help prevent these things from happening.
Friday, January 10, 2020
Changes in impairment level, functional status, and use of assistive devices by older people with depressive symptoms. Dayao, Arveene L. BS Psychology II Ã¢â¬â 01 Manila Tytana Colleges To be submitted to : Ms. Sheila Laine Dela Paz Date submitted : January 30, 2012 ABSTRACT This study sought to understand how functional status, impairment level, and use of assistive devices change over 3 years for older adults with depressive symptoms. I further explored factors that predict change in severity of depressive symptoms. During 3 years, participants experienced ncreased physical disability, a decline in severity of depressive symptoms, and an increase in the total number of assistive devices owned. A significant number of older adults will experience a decrease in depressive symptoms over 3 years, despite an increase in physical disability. They also will obtain more assistive devices as they age. The specific issue that stands out in the journal is relative to the various changes in impairment level, functional status and use of some suggested assistive devices that could be used by older people who suffer symptoms of depression. I do very much agree how the author ouched the subject and explained depression among the older people. There is nothing from the journal article that I disagree about. The points presented by the author about the existence of this feeling of depression among the older people are true and satisfactory. The second journal that I have, Suicide In Older Adults : Nursing Assessment Of Suicide by Linda Garand, PhD, APRN, BC, Ann M. Mitchell, PhD, RN, AHN, BC, Ann Dietrick, MSN, APRN, BC, Sophia P. Hijjawi, BSN, RN, and Di Pan, BSN, RN, is somewhat parallel to my first journal. This second article talks about suicide in older adults.It is being discussed here that suicide and attempted suicide is associated with depression, psychosis and substance abuse among younger individuals, yet among older adults, depression and co morbid medical cond itions play important contributory roles. Same as what was being talked about in the first article. The issue that attracts my attention is on the prevalence of suicidal behaviors in older adults and lays a foundation for understanding the role of risk factors in the prevention of suicide. Just like in the first article, the issue focuses more on depression on older adults.It has been proven that the older adults are the one that easily get depressed than the younger ones. Just as no single factor is universally causal, no single intervention will prevent all suicides. The multi-dimensionality of suicide presents great challenges, but also has important implications for prevention. Suicide in late life must be understood as a complex combination of interactive effects in which mood disorders take a central role. Our ability to more precisely target preventive interventions will hinge on a better understanding of those relationships. Until then, urses and others must be diligent in t he identification of older adults at risk for suicide. Subgroups of older adults at high risk for suicide include those with depressive illnesses, previous suicide attempts, physical illnesses, and those who are socially isolated. Therefore I can say, that major depression is the most common diagnosis in older adults (of both sexes) who attempt or complete suicide. This study used data from Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Aging Consumer Assessment Study, a longitudinal study of coping strategies of elders with disabilities.Seventy-three participants with depressive symptoms were interviewed at baseline and 3 years later. I believe that the author used the most appropriate method because they have come about with good results. And thus, there is no other appropriate or suitable way to test the depressive symptoms of older people than having a study or conducting a survey on a rehabilitation center. For me, application through conducting tests would be the best idea to p rove whether the issue is correct or not. The journal article fully and clearly explains what depression is all about that affects the lder people. It is notable that depression happens to some people more especially the old ones who are said to be prone to the disorder. Upon relating the topic to my course, such situation is under the field of Abnormal Psychology. The field is of great importance to students taking up Psychology course like me who would desire to pursue the field of Clinical Psychology. As depression is common and could happen to everyone, this study is applicable to all. Through it, we shall have a clear idea of the appropriate way to do if ever we meet or experience a feeling of depression.Above all things, this will be a great help to me who would really like to be a successful Clinical Psychologist in the future. REFERENCES Mann, William C. , et al. Ã¢â¬Å"Changes in impairment level, functional status, and use of assistive devices by older people with depressi ve symptoms. Ã¢â¬ Ã AJOT: American Journal of Occupational TherapyÃ 62. 1 (2008): 9+. InfoTrac Custom 100 Titles. Web. 19 Jan. 2012. Document URL http://find. galegroup. com/gtx/infomark. do? &source=gale&srcprod=SP00&prodId=SPJ. SP00&u serGroupName=phmtc&tabID=T002&docId=A208219498&type=retrieve&contentSet=IAC-Documents&version=1. 0 Agree, E. , & Freedman, V. (2003). A comparison of assistive technology and personal care in alleviating disability and unmet need. Gerontologist, 43, 335-344. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. ). Washington, DC: Author. Bergner, M. , Bobbitt, R. , Pollard, W. , Martin, D. , & Gilson, B. (1976). The Sickness Impact Profile: Validation of a health status measure. Medical Care, 14, 57-67. Bradburn, N. (1969). The structure of psychological well-being. Chicago: Aldine. Center for Functional Assessment Research. 1990). Guide for use of the Uniform Data Set for Medical Rehabilitatio n (Version 3. 1). Buffalo, NY: Author. Chen, T. Y. , Mann, W. C. , Tomita, M. , & Nochajski, S. (2000). Caregiver involvement in the use of assistive devices by frail older persons. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 20, 179- 199. Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics. (2004). Older Americans 2004: Key indicators of well-being. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office. Fillenbaum, G. G. (1988). Multidimensional functional assessment of older adults: The Duke Older American Resources and Services procedures.Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Fillenbaum, G. G. , & Smyer, M. A. (1981). The development, validity, and reliability of the OARS Multidimensional Functional Assessment Questionnaire. Journal of Gerontology, 36, 428-434. Folstein, M. , Folstein, S. E. , & McHugh, P. (1975). Ã¢â¬Å"Mini-Mental StateÃ¢â¬ : A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189- 198. Gilson, B. S. , Gilson, J . S. , Bergner, M. , Bobbit, R. A. , Kressel, S. , Pollard, W. E. , et al. (1975). The Sickness Impact Profile: Development of an outcome measure of health care.American Journal of Public Health, 65, 1304-1325. Hamilton, B. , Granger, C. , Sherwin, F. , Zielenzy, M. , & Tashman, J. (1987). A uniform national data system for medical rehabilitation. In M. Fuhrer (Ed. ), Rehabilitation outcomes: Analysis and measurement (pp. 137-147). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes. Hamilton, M. (1960). A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurologic Neurosurgical Psychiatry, 23, 56-62. Hoenig, H. , Taylor, D. , & Sloan, F. (2003). Does assistive technology substitute for personal assistance among the disabled elderly? American Journal of Public Health, 93, 330-337.Kruskal, W. , & Wallis, W. (1952). Use of ranks in one-criterion variance analysis. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 47, 583-621. Lebowitz, B. , Pearson, J. , Schneider, L. , Reynolds, C. , Alexopoulos, G. , Bruce, M. , et a l. (1997). Diagnosis and treatment of depression in late life. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278, 1186-1190. Lenze, E. , Schulz, R. , Matire, L. , Zdaniuk, B. , Glass, T. , Kop, W. , et al. (2005). The course of functional decline in older people with persistently elevated depressive symptoms: Longitudinal findings from the cardiovascular health study.Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 53, 569-575. Lubin, B. (1967). Manual for the Depression Adjective Check Lists. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service. Mann, W. , Llanes, C. , Justiss, M. , & Tomita, M. (2004). Frail older adults' self-report of their most important assistive device. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research: Occupation, Participation, and Health, 24, 4-12. Mann, W. , Ottenbacher, K. , Fraas, L. , Tomita, M. , ; Granger, C. (1999). Effectiveness of assistive technology and environmental interventions in maintaining independence and reducing home care costs for the frail elder ly.Archives of Family Medicine, 8, 210-217. Noel, P. , Williams, J. , Unutzer, J. , Worchel, J. , Lee, S. , Cornell, J. , et al. (2004). Depression and comorbid illness in elderly primary care patients: Impact on multiple domains of health status and well-being. Annals of Family Medicine, 2, 555-562. Ottenbacher, K. , Mann, W. , Granger, C. , Tomita, M. , Hurren, D. , ; Charvat, B. (1994). Inter- rater agreement and stability of functional assessment in the community-based elderly. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 75, 1297-1301. Pollak, N. , Rheult, W. , ; Stoecker, J. 1996). Reliability and validity of the FIM for persons aged 80 years and above from a multilevel continuing care retirement community. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 77, 1056-1061. Pollard, W. , Bobbitt, R. , Bergner, M. , Martin, D. , ; Gilson, B. (1976). The Sickness Impact Profile: Reliability of a health status measure. Medical Care, 14, 146-155. Pollock, B. , ; Reynolds, C. (20 00). Depression late in life. Harvard Mental Health Letter, 17, 3-5. Pollock, B. , ; Weksler, M. (2000). Clinical update: How to recognize and treat depression in older persons.Geriatrics, 55, 67-7 . Raccio-Robak, N. , McErlean, M. , Fabacher, D. , Milano, P. , ; Verdile, V. (2002). Socioeconomic and health status differences between depressed and non-depressed elders. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 20, 71-73. Radloff, L. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385-401. Radloff, L. , ; Locke, B. (Eds. ). (1986). The community mental health assessment survey and the CES-D scale. In M. M. Weissman, J. K. Myers, ; C. E. Ross (Eds. , Community surveys of psychiatric disorders (pp. 177-189). Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Raskin, A. , Schulterbrandt, J. , Reatig, N. , ; McKeon, J. (1969). Replication of factors of psychopathology in interview, ward behavior, and self-report r atings of hospitalized depressives. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 148, 87-96. Roelands, M. , Van Oost, P. , Buysse, A. , ; Depoorter, A. (2002). Awareness among community- dwelling elderly of assistive devices for mobility and self-care and attitudes towards their use. Social Science and Medicine, 54, 1441-1451.Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services, ; National Institute of Mental Health. (1994). Mental health: A report of the Surgeon GeneralÃ¢â¬â Executive summary: Chapter 5Ã¢â¬âDepression in older adults. Rockville, MD: Authors. Retrieved February 13, 2003, from http://mentalhealth. org/features/surgeongeneralreport/chapter5/sec3. asp Schiller, J. , & Bernadel, L. (2004). Summary health statistics for the U. S. opulation: National Health Interview Survey, 2002. Vital Health Statistics, 10(220) 1-101. Tomita, M. , Mann, W. , & Fraas, L. (2004). Predictors of the use of assistive devices that address physical impairments among community-based frail elders. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 23, 141-155. Verbrugge, L. , & Sevak, P. (2002). Use, type, and efficacy of assistance for disability. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 57B, S366-S37 . Wechsler, D. (1955). Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. New York: Psychological Corporation.Westfall, P. , ; Young, S. (1993). Resampling-based multiple testing: Examples and methods for p-value adjustment. New York: Wiley. Wilcoxon, F. (1945). Individual comparisons by ranking methods. Biometrics, 1, 80-83. William C. Mann, OTR, PhD, is Chairperson and Distinguished Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Florida, P. O. Box 100164, Gainesville, FL 32610-0164; [emailÃ protected] ufl. edu Jessica L. Johnson, MA, OTR/L, is Research Assistant, RERC-Tech-Aging, Rehabilitation Scie nce Doctoral Program, University of Florida, Gainesville.Lisa G. Lynch, MHS, OTR/L, is Occupational Therapist and Owner, Creative Therapy Works, Inc. , Lake Worth, FL. Michael D. Justiss, PhD, OTR/L, is Assistant Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis. Machiko Tomita, PhD, is Associate Professor, Department of Rehabilitation Science, University at Buffalo, State University of New York. Samuel S. Wu, PhD, is Assistant Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Health Policy Research, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Thursday, January 2, 2020
When two or more materials are mixed, there are different products that may form. One of this is an emulsion: Emulsion Definition An emulsion is a colloid of two or more immiscible liquids where one liquid contains a dispersion of the other liquids. In other words, an emulsion is a special type of mixture made by combining two liquids that normally dont mix. The word emulsion comes from the Latin word meaning to milk (milk is one example of an emulsion of fat and water). The process of turning a liquid mixture into an emulsion is called emulsification. Key Takeaways: Emulsions An emulsion is a type of colloid formed by combining two liquids that normally dont mix.In an emulsion, one liquid contains a dispersion of the other liquid.Common examples of emulsions include egg yolk, butter, and mayonnaise.The process of mixing liquids to form an emulsion is called emulsification.Even though the liquids that form them may be clear, emulsions appear cloudy or colored because light is scattered by the suspended particles in the mixture. Examples of Emulsions Oil and water mixtures are emulsions when shaken together. The oil will form drops and disperse throughout the water.Egg yolk is an emulsion containing the emulsifying agent lecithin.Crema on espresso is an emulsion consisting of water and coffee oil.Butter is an emulsion of water in fat.Mayonnaise is an oil in water emulsion that is stabilized by the lecithin in egg yolk.The photosensitive side of photographic film is coated with an emulsion of silver halide in gelatin. Properties of Emulsions Emulsions usually appear cloudy or white because light is scattered off the phase interphases between the components in the mixture. If all of the light is scattered equally, the emulsion will appear white. Dilute emulsions may appear slightly blue because low wavelength light is scattered more. This is called the Tyndall effect. Its commonly seen in skim milk. If the particle size of the droplets is less than 100 nm (a microemulsion or nanoemulsion), its possible for the mixture to be translucent. Because emulsions are liquids, they dont have a static internal structure. Droplets are distributed more or less evenly throughout a liquid matrix called the dispersion medium. Two liquids can form different types of emulsions. For example, oil and water can form an oil in water emulsion, where the oil droplets are dispersed in water, or they can form a water in oil emulsion, with water dispersed in oil. Further, they can form multiple emulsions, such as water in oil in water. Most emulsions are unstable, with components that wont mix on their own or remain suspended indefinitely. Emulsifier Definition A substance that stabilizes an emulsion is called an emulsifier or emulgent. Emulsifiers work by increasing the kinetic stability of a mixture. Surfactants or surface active agents are one type of emulsifiers. Detergents are an example of a surfactant. Other examples of emulsifiers include lecithin, mustard, soy lecithin, sodium phosphates, diacetyl tartaric acid ester of monoglyceride (DATEM), and sodium stearoyl lactylate. Distinction Between Colloid and Emulsion Sometimes the terms colloid and emulsion are used interchangeably, but the term emulsion applies when both phases of a mixture are liquids. The particles in a colloid can be any phase of matter. So, an emulsion is a type of colloid, but not all colloids are emulsions. How Emulsification Works There are a few mechanisms that may be involved in emulsification: Emulsification may occur when the interfacial surface tension between two liquids is reduced. This is how surfactants work.An emulsifier may form a film over one phase in a mixture to form globules that repel each other, allowing them to remain evenly dispersed or suspended.Certain emulgents increase the viscosity of the medium, making it easier for the globules to remain suspended. Examples include the hydrocolloids acacia and tragacanth, glycerine, and the polymer carboxymethyl cellulose. Sources IUPAC (1997). (The Gold Book)Compendium of Chemical Terminology. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. Archived from the original on 2012-03-10.Slomkowski, Stanislaw; AlemÃ ¡n, JosÃ © V.; Gilbert, Robert G.; Hess, Michael; Horie, Kazuyuki; Jones, Richard G.; Kubisa, Przemyslaw; Meisel, Ingrid; Mormann, Werner; Penczek, StanisÃ âaw; Stepto, Robert F. T. (2011). Terminology of polymers and polymerization processes in dispersed systems (IUPAC Recommendations 2011). Pure and Applied Chemistry. 83 (12): 2229Ã¢â¬â2259.
Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Inner Journey Assessment William F Buckley quoted Ã¢â¬Å"If all difficulties were known at the outset of a long journey most of us would never start at allÃ¢â¬ . This quote relates to journeys, specifically to inner journeys with the intention that many journeys are difficult and if individuals knew how difficult the journey was going to be, then most of us would not even commence the journey. A journey is simply a movement from one place to another. Physical journeys are gateways to inner journeys, which is a journey of the mind and spirit. Inner journeys take place when an individual experiences events or is involved in relationships that act as a catalyst to gain greater understanding about themselves and the world. Inner journeys can beÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The metaphor transfers the journey from a physical one. The persona is confronted with the choice of two roads, both fairly similar Ã¢â¬Ëtwo roads diverged in a yellow woodÃ¢â¬â¢, and must decide which one he wants to travel. This is si milar to LewisÃ¢â¬â¢s situation where he has to decide between politics, and true love and fidelity and which is more important. The persona, with ultimately choosing the one that was Ã¢â¬Ëgrassy and wanted wearÃ¢â¬â¢ and the Ã¢â¬Ë one less travelled byÃ¢â¬â¢. He wanted to break away from the norm and experience something new. This road may be more rewarding despite the fact it presents more challenges. The inner journey is depicted through the use of language techniques such as, extended metaphor, first person pronoun, repetition and symbolism. The use of first person pronoun Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢ shows that it is a personal journey where choices need to be made. The repetition of Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢ in the last stanza highlights the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s solitude and that he is proud of the choice he has made Ã¢â¬Ëand I-I took the one less travelled byÃ¢â¬â¢, also emphasises that we are responsible for our own decisions on our own journey. It helps the audience connect to the poem and inturn reflect on their own inner journey experiences. Frost uses symbolism in the word in the first line of the first stanza in Ã¢â¬ËyellowÃ¢â¬â¢ of the wood. This symbolises the season autumn and the autumnal time in ones life where time is running out and decisions need to be made, this demonstratesShow MoreRelatedÃ¢â¬Å"a Journey of a Thousand Miles Begins with a Single StepÃ¢â¬ 1014 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEnglish Expository SAC- Inner Journeys Ã¢â¬Å"A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single stepÃ¢â¬ The purpose of this expository piece is to explore various effects of a journey that is initiated from a single step. The argument will be presented using previous texts studied in class in relation to the prompt Ã¢â¬Å"A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step. The intended audience is to people of all ages, but specifically to students studying the concepts of inner journeys. All human beingsRead MoreDante s Paradise Lost, And Homer s Iliad2502 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pages No mental reservation impairs DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s acceptance of Divine authority. Not a backward look does he cast when he entrusts of its keeping. No man, having put his hand to the plough, and looking back, is fitting for the kingdom of God. When on his Journey, Dante reaches with Virgil, his guide, the of Purgatory, the keeper warns the travelers of their danger: Ã¢â¬Å"He pushed the hammers of the sacred door. Ã¢â¬ËEnter,Ã¢â¬â¢ he said, Ã¢â¬Ëbut you should be aware those who look back are cast outside once more.Ã¢â¬â¢ And the